20 psychology questions | Psychology | Irvine Valley College

                                Answer the 20 multiple choice questions using the supporting Documents 

Question 1

The nonequivalent group design is similar to the ________ design except random assignment is not used to form the groups.

  ex post facto


  pretest-posttest control-group

Solomon four-group

Question 5

The simplest single-case design that allows us to show a cause-and-effect relationship is the

  A-B-A design

  A-B-A-B design

  A-B design

  A-B-B-A design

Question 7

A single-case experimental design is similar to a(n)

  correlated-groups design.

  case-study approach.

  independent-groups design.

  replication study.

Question 8

A measurement that is made under normal conditions, i.e., when no IV is present, is called a ________ measurement.





Question 10

Which of the following is an example of a testing threat to internal validity?

The measurement of caloric intake includes multiple assessment measures.

By asking participants to record their daily caloric intake, they reduce calorie consumption regardless of group assignment.

The treatment condition significantly reduces caloric intake compared to the control condition.

When investigating caloric intake, a measure of physical flexibility is used.

Question 13

A student proposes to randomly assign residents of a fraternity house to either receive a brief intervention to reduce risky alcohol use or to not have an intervention. The findings indicated similar changes in both groups. The student should be concerned with

diffusion of treatment.


statistical regression.

random selection.

Question 15

You are ready to begin collecting data for an experiment. You planned to randomly assign students from your university to one of two groups and then administer an IV to one of the groups. However, your research partner, without your knowledge, simply placed all students from one class into the experimental group, and all students from another class into the control group. Your advisor tells you it will now be hard to make cause-and-effect conclusions. Why?

Only one group received the IV.

  The students were not asked which group they wanted to be in.

  The students were not randomly assigned to the two groups.

  The students should have provided informed consent first.

Question 16

If a research study is confounded, then the ________ of the experiment ________.

external validity; decreases

  internal validity; decreases

  external validity; increases

  internal validity; increases

Question 17

A new parent is transitioning her baby from milk to food. In order to assess possible allergic reactions, she first introduces green beans for one week, then introduces peas for one week, then introduces sweet potatoes, and so forth with each vegetable. This is an example of

  repeated measures.

  changing one variable at a time.

  baseline measurements.

  extraneous variables.

Question 18

In clinical research using a single-case design, an experimenter finds statistically significant differences. For example, an alcohol-dependent patient who received the intervention drank 0.5 fewer drinks per day than at baseline. This example would argue

  against replication studies.

  against statistical analyses.

  for generalization of results.

  for statistical analyses.

Question 19

During the course of a very large study spanning several years, the same research assistant conducts all measurements of the dependent variable. During his first year, he used a structured assessment, but as he became more familiar with the study, he no longer used the structured measure. The investigator of this project should be concerned with





Question 20

Monique is planning to run a single-case study on a roommate. She plans to manipulate both her roommate’s exercise and eating habits for one week to see how they affect mood. How could Monique best improve this design?

get informed consent from the roommate

  add a third variable to improve external validity

  use a standardized measurement for mood

  only manipulate one variable at a time

Question 21

Which of the four designs gives us the best opportunity to support a cause-and-effect conclusion?

  A-B-A design

  A-B design

  A-B-A-B design

  A-B-B-A design

Question 23

The standard notation for describing single-case designs uses a(n) ________ to refer to the baseline measurement, and a(n) ________ to refer to the outcome measurement.

  A; B

  B; O

  A; O

  B; A

Question 24

The diagram below best describes which type of research design?  

R O 1 O 2 
R O 3 X O 4 
R O 5 
R X O 6 

  pretest-posttest control group design

  posttest only design

  posttest-only control group design

  Solomon four-group design

Question 25

During an experiment involving college students randomized to two groups, a severe snowstorm occurs and the campus is closed for several days, preventing participants from accessing the psychology laboratory. The storm is an example of which threat to interaction with selection?





Question 26

To incorporate repeated measures in a single-case design, it is important that the behavior is





Question 27

How many baseline measurements are recorded in an A-B-A-B single-case design?





Question 28

When evaluating a proposed single-case design research study, you notice the baseline measurement is taken once. What concern might you have about this design?

  Increased ability to find a stable measurement

  Decreased ability to change one variable at a time

  Increased ability to observe trends

  Decreased ability to observe trends

Question 29

Dr. Smith works in a medical hospital providing treatment to patients admitted to the inpatient psychiatric unit. She provides therapy to a patient with a very unique presentation of symptoms and treatment response. She publishes her paper in a peer-reviewed journal. This paper is an example of a(n)


  baseline measurement.

  experimental analysis of behavior.

  single-case experimental design

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